What is RevPar and how to increase it without jeopardizing profits

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Jan 24, 2020 | Revenue Management | Reading Time: 5 minutes

Do you know what is RevPar and what is the fastest way to boost profits? Is it by increasing the occupancy rate? Well, maybe to sell on any coast might increase the Revpar number, but the damages can be far bigger…

In the rush and despair of increasing revenue, many times revenue professionals forget the basics: profitability. And that is why, at the end of the day, the best way- yet not the fastest- to grow RevPar is through the average daily rate (ADR).

a man holding a papper saying "I don't know what RevPar is"

What is RevPar and the RevPar formula

RevPar stands for revenue generated per available room. It is the key performance indicator (KPI) in the hotel industry and it’s considered more important than the occupancy rate. It takes into account the balance between occupancy and the average daily rate (ADR).

In practice, it’s the simulation of the average daily rate in a full occupancy scenario. The higher is the RevPar, the more money you are gaining per room. It’s the hotel’s performance turned into money!

This is the KPI the sales and the financial department should always keep an eye on. Not only to the hotel’s RevPar but also RevPar Index, which is an indicator to if your hotel is getting the expected market share amongst its Compset – more about the RevPar Index later on the text, keep reading it!

⚠ Caution!! RevPar might be growing, but the hotel might be, in fact, not doing so well.

Whoever is auditing the hotel finances (owner, General Manager, Revenue Manager) knows the importance of the balance between revenue and expenses. That’s why is imperative to understand that RevPar is only the first step to understand the hotel’s performance.

RevPar calculation

a math formula where one plus one is three

There are two basics formulas to calculate RevPar. The first one, multiply your average daily rate (ADR) by your occupancy rate:

RevPar = ADR x Occupancy Rate (%)

Example: If you have an occupancy at 60% and your ADR is $100, your RevPar will be $60.

The second one is dividing the total number of rooms available in your hotel with the total revenue from the night.

RevPar = Total revenue from the night / total number of rooms available.

How does the traveler acquisition coats impacts the hotel RevPar?

A better way to understand the hotel’s performance is to adjust the RevPar to the expenses. For instance: imagine that your cost per room is $10,00. This is your fixed costs per room to keep it running.

If you have 10 available rooms, which of these scenarios would you prefer? (Just to make it simple, imagine that your non-occupied rooms don’t represent any coast to your hotel)

Scenario 1

RevPar : occupancy Rate 80% x ADR $50,00 = $40,00
Total Revenue = RevPar x available rooms = $400,00
Real Revenue : Total Revenue – total expenses of the occupied rooms (8x$10,00)
$ 400,00 – $ 80,00 = $320,00

Scenario 2

RevPar: 100% of occupancy rate x $45,00 (ADR) = $45,00
Total Revenue = $45,00 (RevPar) x total of rooms available = $450,00
Real Revenue = Total Revenue – total expenses of the occupied rooms (10x $10)
$450,00 – $100,00 = $350,00

IMPORTANT: The higher it is your occupancy rate, the bigger is your operational coats.

You would prefer Scenario 2, right? And it is because of that managers usually reduce the daily rate to increase the occupation rate. But is this really a good strategy?

In the case above, yes: the higher occupancy rate makes up for the drop of the average daily rate, even with more operational costs.

However, this strategy can backfire because it doesn’t take into account the variable costs and the acquisition and distribution costs.

How to calculate the NetRevPar

Let’s imagine that, in order to increase your occupancy rate, you had to increase the budget for Ads on social media. Therefore, the coast per room went from $10,00 to $20,00.

So we have now:

Scenario 1 (with ads) : Total Revenue – total expenses = $400,00 – $160,00 (8x $20,00) = $240,00
Scenario 2 (with ads) : $450,00 – $200,00 = $250,00

Did you notice that the real revenue is getting smaller and the expenses bigger? This is the NetRevPar, the net income per room.

In this scenario, the average daily rate is vital to keep the RevPar growing. That means that in some cases the average daily rate only compensates the low occupancy rate IF the acquisition cost doesn’t increase.

In those examples, we are discussing only direct bookings. Nevertheless, it is also important to remember the costs of OTAs’ commissions. But that we can argue about this in another post.

Including the total revenue to calculate TrevPar

Now you learned how to deduct the operational costs of the RevPar. In both examples above, we were only talking about the revenue generated through bookings.

However, the hotel can also generate revenue through events and additional services, like a restaurant or spa, or food and beverages. This is what we called TrevPar, the total revenue per available room.

Usually, this indicator is used by resorts because of the variety of services they offer. It is also used to calculate the revenue of a hotel with a social or corporate event structure.

It’s basically the same formula as the Revpar, but taking into account revenue from all departments of the hotel. Look at this example:

a chart showing a hotel's revenue

Source: Mario Cezar Nogales’s article for Revista Hotéis

We can see here that around 40% of the hotel revenue comes from other sources than bookings. Of course, this percentage is not the same for every hotel.

This kind of information is very relevant if you want to balance the occupancy with extra revenue. With that in mind, the revenue management strategies aim to optimize the revenue per room without jeopardizing the hotel’s profit, using additional revenue generated by upselling and other services, in addition to the good management and optimization of coasts.

RevPar Index: getting market share from the competition

Your RevPar might be increasing, but that doesn’t mean that your hotel is performing well when you compare with the numbers of your Compset.

So RevPar Index is the division between your RevPar and market average:

RevPar Index: your RevPar / average market’s RevPar x 100

Above 100% means that you are getting market share and less than 100% means that you are losing market share.

The market share, in percentage, represents your participation in the market regarding your total sales, revenue or number of clients. In the RevPar Index case, it means your level of competitiveness in the hotel industry.

The comparison might be done between the average of the market or of your Compset: it can be the average RevPar of all units of a hotel chain or the average of your competition.

There are magazines and publications that can give you a big picture of the RevPar and the market. SDR, for instance, is a well-known company that provides data benchmarking and analysis for global hospitality sectors.

Keep on eye on your numbers, but also on the market!

*translated from the original “Como aumentar o RevPAR sem pôr em xeque a rentabilidade do hotel” by Paula Miranda.

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